European Journal of Preventive Medicine

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Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania

Received: 11 August 2023    Accepted: 28 August 2023    Published: 11 December 2023
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Abstract

Background: TB-related stigma is a barrier to ending TB. Because of stigma, patients with TB can be delayed in seeking treatment, receiving a diagnosis, initiating and completing treatment, and consequently increasing the transmission of the disease within a community. Information regarding the magnitude and consequences of TB-related stigma in Tanzania are generally missing in our setting. The study aimed to generate such information to inform the planning and implementation of TB-related stigma reduction strategies. Methods: Between September 2021 and February 2022, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data on TB-related stigma among people with or who had TB (PWTB) in five regions of Tanzania. The survey utilized adapted structured questionnaires developed by the Stop TB Partnership. Data collection was carried out through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26, and the results were presented in tables. Results: The study recruited a total of 418 PWTB, with 276 (66%) being male and 86 (18.4%) having TB-HIV co-infection. Among the participants, 86 PWTB (20.6%) reported experiencing stigma due to their TB status. The most common settings where PWTB encountered stigma were within their families (50%), communities (36%), and workplaces (10%). Delays in seeking care (16.7%), obtaining an accurate diagnosis (15%), and initiating treatment (27%) were identified as the most common consequences associated with TB-related stigma. Participants' region, age, education level, and type of TB were factors significantly associated with experiencing TB-related stigma. Conclusion: This study revealed a moderate level of TB-related stigma experienced by TB patients, primarily originating from family members, neighbors, and co-workers. Furthermore, the findings emphasized the impact of TB-related stigma on the delay in seeking medical care for TB diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, this study highlights the need for the prompt inclusion of TB stigma reduction strategies in the TB prevention and control program in Tanzania.

DOI 10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11
Published in European Journal of Preventive Medicine (Volume 11, Issue 6, November 2023)
Page(s) 82-89
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Tuberculosis, Stigma, Magnitude, Consequences, Tanzania

References
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  • APA Style

    Paul Kapyolo, E., Deogratius Muhandiki, W., Gabriel Mabega, N., Eliaimringi Matemba, L., Phares Mwing’a, G., et al. (2023). Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania. European Journal of Preventive Medicine, 11(6), 82-89. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11

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    Paul Kapyolo, E.; Deogratius Muhandiki, W.; Gabriel Mabega, N.; Eliaimringi Matemba, L.; Phares Mwing’a, G., et al. Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania. Eur. J. Prev. Med. 2023, 11(6), 82-89. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11

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    AMA Style

    Paul Kapyolo E, Deogratius Muhandiki W, Gabriel Mabega N, Eliaimringi Matemba L, Phares Mwing’a G, et al. Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania. Eur J Prev Med. 2023;11(6):82-89. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11,
      author = {Eliakimu Paul Kapyolo and Wilbard Deogratius Muhandiki and Ndakibae Gabriel Mabega and Lucas Eliaimringi Matemba and Gerald Phares Mwing’a and Petro Michael Mnyagatwa and Oscar Leonard Kaswaga and Hamimu Omary Kigumi and Emmanuel Heriel Matechi and Onay Godson Lwanzali and Riziki Michael Kisonga and Mangi Job Ezekiel},
      title = {Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania},
      journal = {European Journal of Preventive Medicine},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {82-89},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ejpm.20231106.11},
      abstract = {Background: TB-related stigma is a barrier to ending TB. Because of stigma, patients with TB can be delayed in seeking treatment, receiving a diagnosis, initiating and completing treatment, and consequently increasing the transmission of the disease within a community. Information regarding the magnitude and consequences of TB-related stigma in Tanzania are generally missing in our setting. The study aimed to generate such information to inform the planning and implementation of TB-related stigma reduction strategies. Methods: Between September 2021 and February 2022, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data on TB-related stigma among people with or who had TB (PWTB) in five regions of Tanzania. The survey utilized adapted structured questionnaires developed by the Stop TB Partnership. Data collection was carried out through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26, and the results were presented in tables. Results: The study recruited a total of 418 PWTB, with 276 (66%) being male and 86 (18.4%) having TB-HIV co-infection. Among the participants, 86 PWTB (20.6%) reported experiencing stigma due to their TB status. The most common settings where PWTB encountered stigma were within their families (50%), communities (36%), and workplaces (10%). Delays in seeking care (16.7%), obtaining an accurate diagnosis (15%), and initiating treatment (27%) were identified as the most common consequences associated with TB-related stigma. Participants' region, age, education level, and type of TB were factors significantly associated with experiencing TB-related stigma. Conclusion: This study revealed a moderate level of TB-related stigma experienced by TB patients, primarily originating from family members, neighbors, and co-workers. Furthermore, the findings emphasized the impact of TB-related stigma on the delay in seeking medical care for TB diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, this study highlights the need for the prompt inclusion of TB stigma reduction strategies in the TB prevention and control program in Tanzania.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Magnitude and Consequences of TB-Related Stigma Experienced by People with Tuberculosis in Tanzania
    AU  - Eliakimu Paul Kapyolo
    AU  - Wilbard Deogratius Muhandiki
    AU  - Ndakibae Gabriel Mabega
    AU  - Lucas Eliaimringi Matemba
    AU  - Gerald Phares Mwing’a
    AU  - Petro Michael Mnyagatwa
    AU  - Oscar Leonard Kaswaga
    AU  - Hamimu Omary Kigumi
    AU  - Emmanuel Heriel Matechi
    AU  - Onay Godson Lwanzali
    AU  - Riziki Michael Kisonga
    AU  - Mangi Job Ezekiel
    Y1  - 2023/12/11
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11
    T2  - European Journal of Preventive Medicine
    JF  - European Journal of Preventive Medicine
    JO  - European Journal of Preventive Medicine
    SP  - 82
    EP  - 89
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2330-8230
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejpm.20231106.11
    AB  - Background: TB-related stigma is a barrier to ending TB. Because of stigma, patients with TB can be delayed in seeking treatment, receiving a diagnosis, initiating and completing treatment, and consequently increasing the transmission of the disease within a community. Information regarding the magnitude and consequences of TB-related stigma in Tanzania are generally missing in our setting. The study aimed to generate such information to inform the planning and implementation of TB-related stigma reduction strategies. Methods: Between September 2021 and February 2022, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data on TB-related stigma among people with or who had TB (PWTB) in five regions of Tanzania. The survey utilized adapted structured questionnaires developed by the Stop TB Partnership. Data collection was carried out through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26, and the results were presented in tables. Results: The study recruited a total of 418 PWTB, with 276 (66%) being male and 86 (18.4%) having TB-HIV co-infection. Among the participants, 86 PWTB (20.6%) reported experiencing stigma due to their TB status. The most common settings where PWTB encountered stigma were within their families (50%), communities (36%), and workplaces (10%). Delays in seeking care (16.7%), obtaining an accurate diagnosis (15%), and initiating treatment (27%) were identified as the most common consequences associated with TB-related stigma. Participants' region, age, education level, and type of TB were factors significantly associated with experiencing TB-related stigma. Conclusion: This study revealed a moderate level of TB-related stigma experienced by TB patients, primarily originating from family members, neighbors, and co-workers. Furthermore, the findings emphasized the impact of TB-related stigma on the delay in seeking medical care for TB diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, this study highlights the need for the prompt inclusion of TB stigma reduction strategies in the TB prevention and control program in Tanzania.
    
    VL  - 11
    IS  - 6
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Medical Research, Dodoma Medical Research Centre, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Research and Consultancy, Geita Health Training Institutes, Geita, Tanzania

  • Department of Health Research Information and Regulatory Affairs, National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  • Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Medical Research, Dodoma Medical Research Centre, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Medical Research, Dodoma Medical Research Centre, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Medical Research, Dodoma Medical Research Centre, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Preventive Services, Ministry of Health, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Preventive Services, Ministry of Health, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Preventive Services, Ministry of Health, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Preventive Services, Ministry of Health, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Department of Behavioral Science, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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