Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2018, Page: 58-63
The Relationship Between the Ratio of Interleukin-10(IL-10) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) with Plasmodium falciparum Density in Nigerian Children
Okoro Chinyere Ihuarulam, Department of Microbiology/Parasitology, Federal Medical Center, Owerri, Nigeria
Agomo Chimere Obiora, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Ihenetu Francis Chukwuebuka, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Iroegbu Uchechi Francis, Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Center, Owerri, Nigeria
Odinaka Kelechi Kenneth, Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Center, Owerri, Nigeria
Nnadozie Raymond Ikechukwu, Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Dunga Kingsly Excell, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Madonna University, Elele, Nigeria
Okoro Oluchi Ijeoma, Department of Microbiology, Beulah Medical Diagnostics and Research, Owerri, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 18, 2018;       Accepted: Aug. 20, 2018;       Published: Oct. 8, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20180604.14      View  223      Downloads  12
Circulating levels of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α have been shown to correlate with disease severity in African children. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) production appears to be important in the induction and maintenance of immunity to P. falciparum in naturally exposed populations.TNF-α induces fever, and elevated body temperatures can suppress parasitemia. Although TNF-α-induced mechanisms can serve the host to control infection, prolonged exposure to TNF-α may adversely affect the individual by inducing or promoting severe disease. The present study was conducted among children in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria between July 2014 and March 2015, with a view to assessing the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum density and the ratio of inter-leukin 10(IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Blood samples were taken from children aged 1-72 months with fever or history of fever in the last 24 hours whose caregivers consented to the study.Malaria parasite density was determined by microscopy while the serum and/or plasma levels of cytokine by ELISA method.The geometric mean of IL-10/TNF-α ratios of 1.9pg/ml,2.0pg/ml and 1.3pg/ml were recorded for parasite density groups of 1-1000, 1001 – 10000 and >10,000 parasites/µlrespectively. IL-10/TNF-α ratio significantly decreased at high parasite density group (>10,000 parasites/µl) compared to lower parasite density groups (p=0.008). The IL-10/TNFα ratio in parasitized and healthy control groups were 3.4pg/ml and 1.8 pg/ml, respectively (P<0.05). Although significant increases in concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-α were observed among parasitized children compared to healthy controls, the reduction in IL-10/TNF-α among parasitized individuals suggests a much larger increase in the concentration of TNF-α compared to IL-10 in response to the presence of malaria parasites. Among parasitized children, IL-10/TNF-α ratio decreased as parasite density increased. Thus, IL-10/TNF-α ration may be a marker of severity of malaria infection among Nigerian children.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α), Interleukin 10(IL-10), Malaria Parasite Density, IL-10/TNF-α Ratio
To cite this article
Okoro Chinyere Ihuarulam, Agomo Chimere Obiora, Ihenetu Francis Chukwuebuka, Iroegbu Uchechi Francis, Odinaka Kelechi Kenneth, Nnadozie Raymond Ikechukwu, Dunga Kingsly Excell, Okoro Oluchi Ijeoma, The Relationship Between the Ratio of Interleukin-10(IL-10) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) with Plasmodium falciparum Density in Nigerian Children, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 58-63. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20180604.14
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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